Illegal adoptions II: the route of trafficking of children sent abroad

Illegal adoptions II: the route of trafficking of children sent abroad



Additional Information
Illegal adoptions: 141 mothers have already been reunited with the children they took from them at birth

A dozen hotels in the central area of ​​Santiago and illegal nurseries located in towns, were the scene of the trafficking of thousands of children taken from their mothers and sent abroad. CIPER reconstructed the route of these illegal adoptions, which includes emblematic hotels – such as the Sheraton and the Carrera – whose addresses appear on dozens of birth certificates issued by the Civil Registry for children who were removed from the country. We also reviewed reports from the Australian and American press that already in the 80s and 90s revealed names of juvenile judges, lawyers and social workers involved, but in the Chile of the transition no one wanted to listen to these complaints.

Alejandra Tabitaud. Foto: Diego Figueroa | Migrar Photo.

Alejandra Tabitaud walks along the Paseo Ahumada holding a canvas and wrapped with scarves around her neck. Go slowly along with fifty people. It is Monday, it is July, it is 2019. But she is leaving because 39 years ago her son was robbed. The scarves are explained one by one. The yellow one, with the acronym HMS in black, belongs to the group that called the march: Sons and Mothers of Silence, which brings together victims of trafficking in Chilean children who are handed over in illegal adoptions. He also has the flag of the United States around his neck that falls on his back as a superhero cape. Alejandra marches in the middle of the afternoon and demands justice, singing the usual screams. But now there is some relief in his gaze. A little over a month ago, he returned from the United States, where he was reunited with the son who was taken from him.
Only five days in New York was enough for Alejandra to end an agony that began on January 30, 1980, when she had her first delivery at the San Juan de Dios Hospital. She was then 16 years old and the fate of her newborn had been agreed by other people. Outside the hospital her mother was waiting for her, along with a woman and a man. They put her in a car, took her to the Civil Registry and gave her a paper with the name that she had to put on her son:
-The woman said to me “now, you have to pass this paper and not talk about anything, give no more and there they will do everything.” I couldn’t say anything, my mom was there and I was very afraid of her. I cried and cried -he tells.

Alejandra was promised that she would see her son again, that they would never lose touch. They lied to him. She never heard from him again. And although she was finally able to find him again, she asks for justice for the almost four decades of suffering. That is why she walks along the Paseo Ahumada with other mothers. To remind the judges that those responsible continue to go unpunished. And they all march knowing that very close, within a radius of no more than ten streets, there are a dozen places where the trafficking of children taken from mothers like them – teenagers, poor, first-time women – was carried out for decades to be delivered in illegal adoptions.

Most of these central points are old and renowned hotels: El Conquistador, Montecarlo, Carrera, among others. There are also departments that until a few years ago functioned as law offices. And houses in outlying towns that housed illegal nurseries. If in the abduction of minors – from hospitals and clinics – those responsible were doctors, midwives, nurses, priests and nuns, this second phase – the circuit of illegal nurseries and hotels, from where children were taken to the airport with papers irregular – it was fed by juvenile judges, lawyers and social workers.
CIPER was able to verify that more than 700 children sent abroad were registered in the Civil Registry as residents in these hotels. This is stated in his birth certificates. Most of these documents were issued without the parents present or only with the mother’s attendance. In many cases the children were registered with the surname of the foreign adoptive father and the Chilean biological mother, something completely out of the norms.
This is how the registrations of minors sent abroad and listed as residents in Santiago hotels are broken down:

  • Hotel Montecarlo: 374 children.
  • Hotel El Conquistador: 176 children.
  • Hotel Carrera: 88 children.
  • Sheraton Hotel: 35 children.
  • Carlton House Hotel: 32 children.

We reviewed databases with reports from the international press from the 1980s onwards, crossed information from public records and interviewed some of those involved. The results show that illegal adoptions of children were so common that the map of Santiago fills with marks when the directions that were part of this route are fixed on it. Not only from hotels, but also from old law offices, residences of social workers and illegal nurseries. Some examples of the massiveness with which these addresses were used to enroll children emerged with the review of more than six hundred birth certificates:

  • San Diego 2061 (office of the assistant Julia Muñoz): 380 children enrolled.
  • San Antonio 486 (Carlos Gutérrez lawyer’s office): 193 children enrolled.
  • Assistant Doris Marchant’s address: 38 children enrolled.

Review the map prepared by CIPER with the details of the places that were part of the route of child trafficking. To move use the arrows.


From the day that woman and man left her at the door of the Civil Registry and took her son in a car, Alejandra did not stop searching. Months passed, then years. Grief and rage poured into her. He made his family, married and had more children. But he kept looking for the first one. On the way he has faced everything. From those who blame her for the illegal adoption, to those who think she is crazy. Since 2014, she began to organize with other mothers who report that their children were taken from them at birth.

Alejandra Tabitaud:
Last June’s trip to the United States helped him fit the missing pieces. She barely saw her son at the John airport. F. Kennedy melted into a hug and cried. That is why he carries the flag of the United States in the marches, as a testimony that his struggle is advancing, as proof that these stories are not inventions and that this really happened for decades in Chile: children were stolen from hospitals, from the orphanages, from their own homes and their mothers were deceived. The investigation carried out by the justice system estimates at 20 thousand the adoptions of Chilean children delivered to foreign couples who are under investigation. Jaime Balmaceda is the minister in charge of the investigations.


The American marriage of Gregg and Jill Chatterson landed in Santiago on October 13, 1989. As soon as they got off the plane, they were taken to a lawyer’s office where they received a child who was only a few months old. “It was weird,” she said, adding: “They gave us the baby, and he seemed a little clueless. His babysitter loved him so much. He cried when he had to quit. ” His account and case history were published on December 8, 1990 by The Oshkosh Northwestern, a local newspaper in Wisconsin, United States

The lawyer’s office was just a small room where there were eight other people doing similar procedures.
The report described the adoption as “instant paternity” for the marriage, which was processed from the United States through the agency “Pauquette Children´s Services in Portage”. And although the article relates the adoption of the Chatterson marriage as a happy ending story, the judicial consequences of that process and of thousands of other similar ones are still open in Chile.

Families organized in the group “Hijos y Madres del Silencio” march through the center of Santiago. Photo: Jorge Vargas | Migrate Photo.
Today, the justice system investigates trafficking networks of Chilean children who went abroad between the 1960s and 1990s. In the first installment of this series, this report, CIPER revealed the different methods used by these networks to remove children from Chile. They were made up of lawyers, judges, social workers, doctors and religious (see this report). Although the procedures were covered with legality, the babies were virtually sold to foreign couples who had problems adopting in their countries.

The cause currently commanded by Minister Jaime Balmaceda already accumulates more than 450 complaints from mothers. The groups of families that demand justice prepare lawsuits against the State and everything will be defined in the coming days, when it is evaluated whether or not these crimes constitute crimes against humanity. If so, they would be imprescriptible.


Vincent Reuilly Girardot approached the group Sons and Mothers of Silence to find out its biological origin. He was born in 1985 in Los Angeles, Biobío, and was handed over to a French couple in 1986. He is part of a long list of men and women who began to ask themselves questions after CIPER revealed in 2014 the illegal adoption networks that existed in Chile, from the cases that involved the priest Gerardo Joannon (see this report here).
Vincent obtained from his adoptive parents part of the documentation about his origin. In that file there was an instructions that they used on their trip to Chile. It is a complete guide on what to do

See part of that document here:

It includes names of “favorable and gentle” judges, contacts with doctors and places to look for children, with names of social workers. The payroll includes households from various cities: the Tomé Hospital included the social worker Aide Rocha; in Chillán, in the Casa Esperanza, the social worker Pilar López; in the Sagrario church, in the Cathedral of Santiago, the contact was Julio Reinaldo; In Conin’s home, in Concepción, Leyla Venegas and social worker Carmen Alvial were mentioned; in the Sename home, also in Concepción, to María Araneda, and in the Gustavo Fricke Hospital, in Viña del Mar, to the social worker Norma Urquiza.

The guide also lists a list of juvenile judges to turn to: Irma Bavestrello and Silvia Onetto appeared at the Concepción Court; in Talcahuano, María Ángeles Parra, and in Valparaíso, María Angélica González.
Judges Bavestrello and Onetto have been unionized as part of the networks that facilitated the abduction of minors. Ruth Cárdenas charged that two of her children had been stolen in Concepción after she left them in a home while treating tuberculosis. When he returned to look for them, they were gone. She managed to reunite with one of her children in 1998, when he traveled from Belgium looking for her. Her family accuses Judge Onetto of receiving money to legalize the abduction

Review the story of Ruth Cárdenas here

Meanwhile, Judge Bavestrello appears in an investigation of the journalist Alejandro Vega, in CHV Noticias, signing illegal adoptions related to the Swedish Adoption Center.

The instructions used by the French couple include recommendations for moving from Santiago to Concepción: the flight “costs $ 7,890, it is 45 minutes.” And it also provides information to stay in Santiago (Hotel El Conquistador and a hostel in Plaza Italia) and eat in Los Adobes de Argomedo, to taste Chilean food.

The guide concludes with the instruction to legalize all the documents (the judicial sentence authorizing custody and the minor’s birth certificate) before the Ministries of Justice and Foreign Affairs. He also points out that they had to take the child to the Dial medical center (Vitacura 2653) so that doctors with the last names Herve, Valdés or Álvarez could certify their health.


Foreigners seeking to adopt a child stayed in hotels in the center of Santiago, to where they took the minors. For this reason, the buses were registered in the Civil Registry with these addresses. A track that today allows us to trace the origin of almost a thousand people with birth certificates that carry these addresses.

A key testimony to establish how the hotels were occupied for these procedures is that of Sandra Solís Valenzuela, who was given up for adoption when she was a teenager and witnessed all this network:

“I was born on September 9, 1972 in Concepción. I grew up in the Buen Pastor nun home. When a social worker asked me if I wanted to be adopted, I answered yes. I was already 16 years old. I think that in August 1989 an Italian couple came looking for me. We went to the airport and flew to Santiago. We stayed at the Carlton House Hotel. There were six Chilean children and five Italian couples. One of those couples wanted a blond, blue-eyed boy and they argued with the man who ran everything. I did not want to leave with the marriage that had adopted me, because they challenged me a lot. I told the man I was running, but he replied that there was nothing to do, that they no longer loved me at home and what I was going to do with my life. I started crying

Read the full testimony of Sandra

At least 32 children were registered with the address of the Carlton House Hotel, located at Máximo Humbser 574, steps from Cerro Santa Lucía. One of them is Solange, born on December 10, 1987 in Chanco (Maule). His certificate does not record either mother or father. The same occurs with Angélica, born on June 25, 1994 in Achao (Chiloé) and with Daniel (April 13, 1987 in Puente Alto).

What were unacknowledged children doing staying at a hotel in downtown Santiago? The testimony of Sandra Solís sheds light on what may have happened: the hotel address was used to register them in Chile, obtain a court judgment of tuition and take them abroad. The current representative of the Carlton House Hotel, Federico Astoreca, told CIPER that he was not aware of this information, but that if the adoption processes were long, it did not surprise him that foreign couples were staying at the establishment and that they had delivered to the Civil Registry that address.
Sources familiar with the judicial investigation carried out by Minister Balmaceda assure that it was common for foreign couples to stay in hotels in the center and to use these addresses to register minors in the Civil Registry.

The Carlton House is not the only hotel that appears on birth certificates. CIPER selected the best known and that register the largest number of registered minors.
The one that leads the payroll is the Hotel Montecarlo (Victoria Subercaseaux 209, also a few meters from Cerro Santa Lucía). There are 374 registered. When randomly reviewing their birth certificates, the result is repeated: no biological parents appear. This is the case of Alexandro, born on April 25, 1988 in Chillán, he was registered with two Italian surnames, but there is no record of father or mother.

Moisés appears in the same hotel (May 12, 1983, Concepción). In his case he only has the recognition of his biological mother. It is the same case of Yasna (May 19, 1987, Concepción). Other minors registered using the address of the Hotel Montecarlo came from Puerto Montt and Valdivia.
The Hotel Montecarlo is owned by the Cordano Poblete family. In 2016 the patriarch (José Cordano Cordano) died and the business was left to his two daughters. The hotel representative, Jorge Flores, responded to CIPER: “There is no knowledge, nor any relationship with the aforementioned agencies. I don’t know what version can be given, because foreigners are passengers who came to stay as clients. ”

Another establishment that registers a large number of registered (176) is the former El Conquistador hotel (Cruchaga 920, Santiago Centro). Already disappeared, his building is occupied by Banco BCI. When reviewing the birth certificates of those registered with that address, the trend is reiterated: a girl with the last name Colicheo (September 23, 1985, Temuco) without recognition of either a father or a biological mother. Another boy with the last name Coliman (October 14, 1985, Temuco). Or a girl born in conception on October 16, 1990, registered without biological parents, but using French surnames.

A report in the Australian newspaper The Age shows how the Hotel El Conquistador was used by couples from that country. In January 1986, Dallice Robins stayed there, guarding the custody of a six-week-old baby, while her daughter and son-in-law processed in Melbourne the authorization to adopt the child. That Australian family came to The Conqueror on the advice of Graeme Orr, a Melbourne resident connected with international adoption agencies. According to a report by The Age, Orr arrived in Chile with his wife in 1983 to process the adoption of a Chilean child and heard about the hotel. Since then he recommended it to the marriages he sent to Chile to adopt

These adoptions were made outside of Australian law, as the Australian government did not recommend adopting Chilean children. The Age article reports on a case that had alerted them and involved a judge, a social worker, and a lawyer forcing Chilean mothers to surrender their children. “Last year, the Queensland director of children’s services quoted stories of Chilean mothers crying when Australian couples came to hospitals to pick up their babies,” says the report, published in January 1986.

A letter sent to The Age newspaper by an Australian woman (Lorraine Bennett) she had adopted in Chile, published on February 12, 1986, sheds more light on how the illegal adoption network used by El Conquistador operated. Together with her husband they stayed there on the recommendation of Australian agencies, which also advised them to work together with two Chilean lawyers, which they did not consider. However, he says that they made calls from the hotel to different orphanages and that their data was given to the same lawyers that they had already rejected

Chile was maligned in reports of baby buying

El Conquistador was owned by the Meiss family through the Panamerican Hotel Company, which currently manages a dozen hotels throughout Chile. The owners of the business in the 1980s (Pedro and Eduardo Meiss Fahrenkrog) have already passed away. Now her children run the business. CIPER tried to contact Roberto Meiss, but received no response.

The Sheraton Hotel (Avenida Santa María 1742, Providencia) has 35 registered people. Those birth certificates are just as suspicious: a girl born in 1985 in Concepción with no biological parents to recognize her. Another minor born in Temuco in 1989 without registered biological parents. The examples are repeated.

Also on the payroll is the former Hotel Carrera (Teatinos 180). With a strategic location, steps from La Moneda, today it is the headquarters of the Chancellery. There are 88 birth certificates that bear his address: children without biological parents who recognize them, children of single mothers, almost all born in southern Chile. It is not a macho act to remark that some of them are children of single mothers.

A cadastre carried out by the group Hijos y Madres del Silencio gives clues to 27 other hotels in Santiago that register suspicious birth registrations.


Among the addresses that are not hotels, but that also register multiple registrations, department 24 of the San Antonio 486 building (Santiago Centro) is included. There are 193 people registered with that address. These birth certificates have the same characteristics as those registered in hotels.

In the 1980s, the department was occupied by the Sociedad Servicios Legales Generales Limitada, created by the lawyer Carlos Gutiérrez Ihitz and his spouse, also the lawyer Iris Vittini González. She had French nationality, is the daughter of the notary Manuel Antonio Vittini and was professor of Law at the University of Chile until 2015. He died in 2004.
CIPER contacted a mother who gave her child up for adoption in that office of lawyer Gutiérrez. She said that she was a teenager and that she was pressured, that they gave her a tiny amount of money to support herself and that before childbirth they locked her in a hotel in front of the office, to avoid regret. He added that his son was taken to the house of a keeper in Conchalí, but he does not remember that address. He says there were always foreign marriages in the office.

Contacted by CIPER, Iris Vittini indicated that her husband processed most of the adoptions from her San Antonio 486 office and denied any hint of illegality. He acknowledged that they were going to court to look for abandoned minors to give them up for adoption. He cited cases of couples staying at the Hotel Carrera and noted that their name was on a list in the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs as a contact in Chile for citizens of that country who wanted to adopt. In any case, the procedures were also done for couples from other countries. “They went everywhere,” he said. To this day, he says, he keeps letters from adoptive parents who thank him.

Iris Vittini, currently 93 years old, said that she had an excellent relationship with juvenile judges: “I was vice-president of the Chilean Corporation of Lawyers, and in that capacity I had to work with juvenile judges on the first adoption law that it became (…) you are talking to honorable people, we could never have lent ourselves to do something that was not legal ”

Listen to the full interview here (Soundcloud Spanish spoken)

On January 30, 1986 the Australian newspaper The Age published another report where he talks about illegal adoptions in Chile. There the spokeswoman for International Social Services (an agency accredited by the Australian government that processed adoptions), Anne Cordner, said that “Chilean lawyers were making fortunes with international adoptions.” He claimed that children were being sold in Chile and cited 1985 reports from Queensland director of children’s services, Graham Zerk, claiming that Australian couples were scammed to obtain children from Chile

In the search carried out by CIPER in the international press, other names of lawyers appeared who were dedicated to transacting the sale of children to foreign couples. One of them is Alberto Bronfman Jacober, who was accused in August 1985 by a report by The Record newspaper, from New Jersey, United States, of defrauding couples seeking to adopt. The article, entitled “A scam instead of a baby,” covered the claims of dozens of marriages (see this report here).

One of the testimonies collected by The Record is from Michelle Szakacs, who assured that Bronfman was contacted through the Latin American Parents Association agency, which operated on Long Island. The report quoted a State Department spokesman who reported that they had 43 complaints against Bronfman. They accused him of charging US $ 2,500 to American couples to deliver a baby, but that it never came.
The Record also quoted sources from the US embassy in Santiago, who reported that Bronfman had fled to Israel with his partner, who in the same report was identified as the Chilean judge Yvonne Gutiérrez Pavas (the correct name is Ivonne Gutiérrez Pavez) . The article reported that US authorities alerted Interpol and accused the judge of “misconduct in office in relation to minors in danger.” The report states: “The United States and Chilean officials yesterday alleged that Ms. Pavas falsified court documents for children that (Bronfman) Jacober bought from impoverished parents. Ms. Pavas allegedly falsified the papers while she was a judge in a rural province 50 miles from Santiago. ” According to that article, Bronfman worked with American, Canadian, and Australian couples. In 1983 alone, 172 Chilean children came to the United States to be adopted by couples from that country.

Ivonne Gutiérrez Pavéz was secretary of the San Fernando juvenile court (Maule region) since November 30, 1977, and in February 1982 she became a judge of the same court. But it was short-lived. On October 18, 1984, it was removed, after the Supreme Court classified it in list four. A short time later, according to the American press, he fled to Israel with Bronfman Jacober. Ivonne Gutiérrez currently lives in Chile. CIPER verified it when visiting it in one of the two departments it owns in Providencia. There they indicated that the former judge was on a trip. We left him a message, but he never replied.

Ivonne Gutiérrez’s file in the Judiciary.

The lawyer’s legal wife, María Aguiló Pujol, was also a juvenile judge. She also worked at the National Children’s House (Sename’s home from where hundreds of minors went abroad). He practiced in the 2nd Juvenile Court of Santiago, which was located in Compañía 1467, steps from the hotels and law offices that oiled the child trafficking machine. From that position, he endorsed many illegal adoptions, and was part of the network of the Swedish Adoption Center, an agency that between 1973 and 1990 removed 2,126 children from Chile. María Aguiló Pujol passed away on March 1, 2012.

Another article in the American press confirms the business that the lawyer Bronfman Jacober had in the United States. The newspaper The Franklin Banner, from Louisiana, in its editions of January 16 and 17, 1985, tells how Bronfman was the lawyer for the adoption of a Chilean girl named Gabriela Elizabeth. And he relieves the role of his partner: “The lawyer, Alberto Bronfman, helped Charles and Gail with the volumes of paperwork required in both the United States and Chile. But it was Bronfman’s wife, who is also a lawyer and who handles youth affairs for the Chilean government, who found Gabriela for the Comeaux ”

(see the first part of that article here).

Bronfman passed away on August 23, 1985 in Tel Aviv, Israel, according to his death certificate. He died two days after the publication of the report of The Record in the United States.


Alejandra Tabitaud, the woman who had her son taken from her in 1980 when she was only 16 years old and who managed to reunite with him a month ago in New York, also suffered the action of lawyers who were pursuing economic gains by processing trout adoptions.
The illegal adoption of Alejandra’s son from the United States was mediated by the American lawyer David Verplank, who worked alongside an assistant named Patricia Zuvic. Those names were obtained by Alejandra when she traveled to the United States last June to meet her son.
David Verplank ran adoption agencies on Long Island and Pennsylvania. I was taking children out of Chile and El Salvador. In the 1980s it was already questioned in the United States. A report from the Scrantonian Tribune (a Pennsylvania newspaper) of August 22, 1988 accuses him of being involved in illegal adoptions

His name became known to the media after he was involved in an adoption that ended with a six-year-old girl who was brain-dead from a beating by her adoptive parents

See a report in the New York Daily News here

Chilean lawyers also operated in the illegal adoption of Alejandra Tabitaud’s son. A CHV Noticias team accompanied Alejandra to the house where she was waiting for the delivery. There was a nursery operated by Doris Marchant, who in that report confirmed that some cases were processed by Telma Uribe, a social worker who worked for the Swedish Adoption Center, who in turn was associated with attorney María Luisa Avendaño.

The nursery organized by Doris Marchant operated at 1037 Panama Street (Pudahuel). There are 38 people registered in that direction, the majority in the 1980s. Alejandra Tabitaud returned to that house on several occasions:
“I was in a bad way, about to be admitted because I didn’t know anything about my son. I started to go back to Mrs. Doris, I went several times. He told me why I wanted that son if he already had others to raise, that he was happy, that I forgot about him ”.
And never forgot. Five years after the birth of her son, the Investigative Police arrived at her home. They accused her of being part of a child trafficking network. They held her for a day. According to Alejandra, someone denounced Doris Marchant and the police seized a notebook with the names of the mothers who had passed through her house in Pudahuel.


International adoption agencies worked with lawyers who guided foreign couples who came to Chile to look for children. Chilean lawyers coordinated with gatekeepers and social workers to collect infants from orphanages, hospitals, and poor homes. And the juvenile judges approved the operation, authorizing the departure of these children from the country.
A fundamental role in these networks of recruitment and sale of minors was fulfilled by social workers and caretakers, in charge of contacting biological mothers. One of the social workers who is being investigated by the justice is Julia Muñoz, who worked with the Swedish Adoption Center.
Julia Muñoz’s office was in San Diego 2061 (Santiago Centro), an address that registers 380 registered people. The highest amount detected so far

The group “Hijos y Madres del Silencio” has participated in the Congressional Investigative Commission on illegal adoptions.

Another address is Erasmo Escala 1822 (Santiago Centro), where the Catholic body Caritas Chile worked. There are 256 registered there. In 1992 the property was purchased by the Archbishopric of Santiago. Caritas processed adoptions for foreign marriages through one of its departments: the Chilean Institute of Colonies, Camps and Children’s Homes.
CIPER contacted Caritas, but until the closing of this report, they did not obtain their version.

The more than 20,000 adoptions investigated by justice also have some Sename homes, religious orphanages and hospitals as their point of origin. For example, La Casa Nacional del Niño (home of the Sename network that receives infants), then located at Antonio Varas 360 (Providencia), registers 141 people registered with that address.

“The law in force between 1965 and 1988 obliged the courts to destroy the background of the family of origin and the individual record of the children, given the nature of the ‘secret’ of the adoptions”, indicates a minute sent by the Sename to CIPER . This causes those seeking official information to hit a wall.

Until 1988 the law did not regulate the adoption of children abroad. Before that, the law of money prevailed. The same Sename minute explains that foreign marriages understood each other directly with the Juvenile Courts, “which processed the tuition and authorization to leave the country of the children. It was also possible that children left the country with authorizations issued by the mother and / or father before a notary. This generated trafficking situations, as networks of intermediaries dedicated to capturing women in conflict with their motherhood began to operate. ”
Beyond the addresses that this CIPER investigation could check, the group Hijos y Madres del Silencio has registered dozens of properties throughout the country from where illegal adoptions were hatched. Most of these addresses have arisen thanks to the documentation and testimonies provided by children and mothers seeking reunion. A payroll that includes public hospitals, private clinics, homes of religious congregations, hotels, caretakers’ houses, illegal daycare centers, offices of lawyers and social workers. Until now, no one has been able to measure the real magnitude of child trafficking. A historical truth that awaits the resolutions of Minister Jaime Balmaceda to continue writing.


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